the liveliness and crispness in wine that activates our salivary glands.


the deliberate addition of oxygen to round out and soften a wine.


holding wine in barrels, tanks, and bottles to advance them to a more desirable state.


ethanol (ethyl alcohol), the product of fermentation of sugars by yeast.


Beers distinguished by use of top fermenting yeast strains, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The top fermenting yeast perform at warmer temperatures than do yeast's used to brew lager beer, and their byproducts are more evident in taste and aroma. Fruitiness and esters are often part of an ale's character.


A relatively new term in America. "All malt" refers to a beer made exclusively with barley malt and without adjuncts.